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The Veneto: Padua and Verona

 

 

San Zanipolo
Bartolomeo Bon/Lombardo family 14th-15th Centuries
 


History

This is the great church of the Dominican order, just as the Frari is for the Franciscans. The sites which were granted to them are far apart and far from the political centre of Venice. The land for this church was, like that for the Frari, presented to the order by Doge Jacopo Tiepolo. The first church here was said to have built in 983, but is first documented in 1184. The Dominicans were given the land here around 1230, and their first church was  completed during the 13th century. It was soon found to be too small, however, and work on a much larger church began in the early 14th Century. By 1368 the apses and transepts were finished but a shortage of funds halted work until the Maggior Consiglio gave the Domicans 10,000 ducats in 1390.  By
1430 the nave was completed and the church was consecrated, with Bon's portal added in 1458-62. Both Gentile and Giovanni Bellini were buried here, in February 1507 and November 1516. Like the Frari it also gets called 'a Venetian Pantheon' as it has twenty-five tombs of doges. The church was not, as you might think, named after the apostles John and Paul (Giovanni and Paolo). The name saints of this church are two obscure soldier-martyr saints of the same names. Images of these saints can be seen in the stained glass window, standing alongside Saints George and  Theodore, two of Venice's three patron saints.

The church
The West front’s huge unfinished brick façade contrasts with the elegance of the decorated façade of the adjoining Scuola Grande di San Marco. The portal is by Bartolomeo Bon, with columns salvaged from a church on Torcello, and mixes classical details into its essentially gothic form, said to have been the style's last gasp in Venice. It was to be part of a remodelled façade but the rest never happened. Notice too the lack of a campanile.

Interior
The interior looms impressively, cross-vaulted with stout plain columns and wooden tie beams. These are all features it shares with the Frari, but San Zanipolo lost its wooden choir in 1682 and so seems larger and airier. The aisles are separated from the nave by 10 thick columns of Istrian stone. The well-lit choir draws the eyes with all its Gothic windows and its Baroque high altar, attributed to Longhena. The stained glass window is one of the rare surviving examples from the period produced on Murano to designs mostly by Bartolomeo Vivarini.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Art highlights
Less
chock-full of crowd-pleasing paintings than the Frari, San Zanipolo does have the Giovanni Bellini San Vincenzo Ferrer altarpiece (see right). It’s an important early work but is somewhat lacking in the calm serenity of his later work, and with considerable studio involvement, especially in the predella. This polyptych, painted around 1465-8, was commissioned by the scuola piccolo devoted to this new saint, who had a reputation as a miraculous healer, which may have increased his popularity in Venice after the plague outbreak of 1464.

You’ll also find the odd St Anthony Begging by Lotto and some impressive Veronese ceiling paintings in the
Capella del Rosario. This chapel was the one destroyed by fire in 1867 (see below) the Veronese ceiling paintings having come later from the lost church of Santa Maria dell'Umiltà. They had been taken to Vienna in 1821, following the demolition of the church, and only returned to Venice at the end of World War I and installed here in June 1925.

The tombs of doges are a bigger draw here - this is the burial place of twenty-five doges, and after the 15th Century all of their funerals were held here. Especially fine are the three for the Mocinego doges on the entrance wall (see above). The one on the left (as you face the back wall) to Doge Pietro is by Pietro Lombardo, with the help of his sons Tullio and Antonio. It glorifies the Doge's military achievements, with Christian themes only getting a look in towards the top with the relief of The Three Marys at the Sepulchre. The tomb on the right to Doge Giovanni is by Tullio Lombardo, the elder son, probably with the help of his brother Antonio. The tomb in the middle, of Doge Alvise I and his wife Loredana Marcello, is later and probably Palladio-designed. It is embellished with two saints taken from Doge Pietro's tomb and incorporates the memorial to Bartolomeo Bragadin, which did not make the Bragadin family happy.

Marcantonio Bragadin's tomb, by Scamozzi is also here. He being the Captain of Venetian forces at
Famagusta when it was taken by the Turks, who was tortured and flayed alive and his stuffed body paraded around the town seated on a cow. His remains were stolen from the arsenal in Constantinople nine years later, returned to his family and interred here.
 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 


Lost art
A Bellini altarpiece of The Virgin and Child with Saints, called the St Catherine of Sienna altarpiece was one of three paintings destroyed in a fire in the Capella del Rosario on August 16th 1867 (see photo by Carlo Naya above). The other two were Titian's mid-period masterpiece The Death of St Peter Martyr and Tintoretto's Crucifixion. The Titian, now only to be seen in copies, like the one by Johann Carl Loth (see right) was one of his most influential works. It and the Tintoretto were singled out as the church's art highlights by H.Taine  in his guidebook Italy: Florence and Venice of 1869. Of the Crucifixion he said The poesy of light and shadow fills the air with brilliant and lugubrious contrasts. A jet of yellow light falls across the nude figure of Christ which seems to be a glorified corpse. Above him float the heads of female saints in a flood of glowing atmosphere while the body of the perverse thief, contorted and savage, embosses the sky with its ruddy muscular forms. In this tempest of intense, angry daylight it seems as if the crosses wavered... you perceive in the background under a luminous cloud a mass of resuscitated bodies.

The Bellini was in poor condition but was an early and innovatory work, being probably the first unified pala produced in Venice. It was usually sited above the first altar on the right as you enter the church, where its original frame remains, but it had been moved temporarily to the Capella del Rosario. There's a description of it by Crowe and Cavalcaselle in A History of Painting in North Italy: Venice, Padua... and a 19th Century watercolour in the Correr (see black and white image above right).

Veronese's enormous Supper at the House of Levi was taken by Napoleon and later returned to the Accademia. It was famously painted, for the refectory here, to replace a Last Supper by Titian destroyed in a fire, as Christ in the House of Simon the Pharisee, the feast where Mary Magdalene had washed Jesus's feet with her tears and hair, but had to be renamed after the church authorities objected to the liberties Veronese had taken with the peripheral figures, and having forgot to include Mary Magdalene. (The Inquisitors had initially just asked the prior to get Titian to replace the large dog in the foreground with Mary. This episode being the inspiration for the famous Monty Python Michelangelo and the Pope sketch ('OK, we'll lose the kangaroo - I can make him into another disciple'.) Another Veronese painted for San Zanipolo (for the altar dedicated to the Pietà) the late, dark and strikingly foreshortened Lamentation, found its way to France in the early 17th century and is now in the Hermitage.

Tintoretto's Madonna and Saints with Camerlengos is now in the Accademia.

A figure of Adam by Tullio Lombardo taken from the tomb of Doge Andrea Vendramin here (originally in Santa Maria dei Servi ) is
now in the Met in New York.

Lost graves
It is said that the painter Vincenzo Catena - a talented associate of Bellini and Giorgione - is buried here, but no trace or formal record has ever been found.

The church in art
Many views by the likes of Guardi, Bellotto and Canaletto. The Canaletto of 1738/9 (see above right) shows the earlier (17th/18th Century?) semi-circular triple-light windows down the side. There's also a watercolour by Sargent, called Rio dei Mendicanti, Venice, of c.1899, which is also from the classic viewpoint. David Roberts did a watercolour of the interior in 1851 (see right).

The church in fiction
In Falling in Love Donna Leon's Commissario Brunetti comes here to light a candle for his mother half way down the right aisle, under a stained glass window depicting a saint she was never sure was George or Theodore. He avoids looking at the Bellini as he passes, being 'still scandalized by the violence of the last restoration...poor thing'.

Opening times
Monday to Saturday 8.00 to 10.00 for the parish,
10.00 to 6.00 with entry fee.
Sunday 1.00 to 6.00

Vaporetto Ospedale


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San Zanipolo in a photochrom print of c.1890.
Showing Gothic triple-light windows along the side.



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